This restriction has hampered its use as a modern commercially viable raw material. Hemp fabric withstands water better than any other textile product. Industrial Hemp (Cannabis sativa L. subsp. 2013). Flax is the only commercial cellulosic textile plant indigenous to Western Europe; it is also the strongest of all the vegetable fibres being two to three times stronger than cotton. Retting is a process employing the action of micro-organisms and moisture on plants to dissolve or rot away much of the cellular tissues and pectins surrounding bast-fibre bundles, and so facilitating separation of the fibre from the stem • The microorganisms, mostly bacteria from retting water enter the plant tissues through the stomata, epidermis and cambium or the cut end, when immersed in retting tank, and through their enzymatic action loosens the fibre strands from the woody core. Ramie has very similar properties to linen; it is a natural white in color, has an excellent lustre and is unusually resistant to bacteria and moulds. Jute has very strong environmental credentials, as it does not require excessive watering, fertilisers or pesticides; it is a fast growing plant with a good yield ratio of fibre to weight and acreage. The extensive root system of bamboo and the fact that it is not uprooted during harvesting means bamboo actually helps preserve soil and prevent soil erosion. The fibre was not damaged by mechanical hackling, thanks to the good retting level obtained by the addition of selected strains, differently to what happened with the traditionally retted fibre. Since the 1930s the focus has been the production of strains that offer a poor sources of drug material. The process for this separation is called retting. DISCUSSION Aniumber of bacteria, both aerobic and anaerobic, are involved in the retting of jute. To improve the conventional retting process in stagnant water, a microbial consortium trade marked as ‘CRIJAF Sona’ has been developed by ICAR-CRIJAF which reduced retting duration by 6 … It can be recycled several times within its lifecycle and also has important biodegradable properties. Bamboo typically grows very densely and its clumping nature enables substantial quantities to be grown in a comparatively small area, easing pressure on land use. It holds its shape well and does not wrinkle easily. In double retting, a gentle process producing excellent fibre, the stalks are removed from the water before retting i… The hard fibres are obtained by decortication and the soft fibres by ginning process as the machines remove the product from the plant. However, it is far less labor intensive and less expensive than water retting. The water‐retting process is initiated by aerobic bacteria; as the air in the rettery … Kenaf fibers are shorter and coarser than those of jute. Bacteria are economically important as these microorganisms are used by humans for many purposes. In this review, bast fibre retting process and the effect of enzymatic retting on the fibre and fibre-reinforced polymer composites have been discussed and reviewed for the latest research studies. 1990). Hemp is the generic name for the entire cannabis family of plants. As it is a grass species it regenerates after being cut, much like a lawn, which negates the need for replanting. With crop rotation it is not necessary to use chemical fertilisers and pesticides when growing flax. It also produces minimum wastage, as there are several by-products. It takes 2–4 weeks for dam retting. The future may see nettles as a crop that can transform lives for those growing textile crops in the developing world. Fiber characteristics such as bundle strength, elongation at break, color, luster, reed length, and gum content were compared for fibers … The finest qualities of hemp for fabric are now produced in Italy. Fibers are obtained from flax stems by the process of retting. NAT expects the partnership will open avenues for the fiber's use in underexplored clothing markets such as couture fashion, sports performance and extreme weather gear. The United States is the only industrialised country where it is still illegal to grow hemp, although some states have granted licences for the cultivation of industrial hemp. They are also cultivating nettles in both the Czech Republic and Lithuania. In 2004 a DEFRA funded project ‘Sustainable Technology in Nettle Growing’ (STING) at Leicester's De Montfort University has succeeded in extracting a silky thread that is stronger and finer than that of other plants such as hemp. It also sustains many varieties of invertebrate species. Retting permits separation of the fibre bundles, and individual fibres, from the vegetal skin and the woody core cells. Tossa jute is also grown as a staple food and is now grown in India. By retting the fibres they are softened and can be decorticated and extracted by beating 16, which is usually done by hand. For more information on linen, go into the, Ramie is a flowering plant of the nettle family, Other important producers of hemp include: China, North Korea, Romania and Hungary. The hard fibres are obtained by decortication and the soft fibres by ginning process as the machines remove the product from the plant. Bamboo fabric made from this process is sometimes called bamboo linen. India produces a variety of hemp known as Sunn or Bombay Hemp. Even when these are used flax requires only one fifth of the pesticides and artificial fertilisers that is required for commercially grown cotton. Bamboo planting can slow deforestation, providing an alternative source of timber for the construction industry and cellulose fibre for the textile industry. Example:Jute is associated with the process of Retting. Hackling is a combing process used to separate the long fibres from the short fibres and to remove the remaining woody material. Furthermore, it was reported that the conditions for bacterial growth and activities were found to be more consistent in water retting, which produced the uniform colonization of bacteria and resulted in better fiber quality (Nair et al. Water-retting traditionally depends upon anaerobic bacteria that live in lakes, rivers, ponds, and vats to produce pectinases and other enzymes to ret flax. explained in more detail below, hemp fibres are classically separated from the plant stems by “water retting”, which in essence is a microbial process. Currently dew retting is the dominant and most desirable method from a sustainability perspective. Other important producers of hemp include: China, North Korea, Romania and Hungary. This requires 10-12 months of anaerobic (bacterial) fermentation. In the mechanical process the woody stems are crushed and natural enzymes break down the stems so that the fibres can be combed out and spun, using similar methods to the production of flax. Bamboo is a very-fast growing woody grass that can produce shoots of up to a metre per day. Jute or Hessian is one of the cheapest natural fibres to produce, and is the second most important vegetable fibre after cotton, in terms of production, global consumption, and availability. White or pure white is only achieved through various bleaching processes. Not all bacteria isolated fromretted jute are responsible for theprocess, as for instance, seven species of aerobic bacteria were isolated fromretted jute but only oneof them, B. poly- … Coir (/ ˈ k ɔɪər /), or coconut fibre, is a natural fibre extracted from the outer husk of coconut and used in products such as floor mats, doormats, brushes and mattresses. The fibres support the conductive cells of the phloem and provide strength to the stem. The quality of the final linen yarn and fabric is dependent upon the growing conditions, harvesting methods and whether it is a short fibre known as, It is a more expensive fibre than cotton with much more of a niche market and therefore is an ideal vehicle for organic cultivation and ecological production methods. It is related to flax and hemp and can be used to produce a fine linen-like cloth. It can also be used for biodegradable plastics. 2. This study for the first time revealed the coexistence … In Bangladesh it was called the “golden fibre,” as trade in jute brought the largest amount of foreign currency into the country. Other uses of brown coir (made from ripe coconut) are in upholstery padding, sacking and horticulture. It is commonly used in regions of low water supply. The penetration of water into the stems causes the detachment of the bast fibres, thus allowing the entry of retting bacteria, which demolish the fibre‐binding pectins (Donaghy et al. Dutch company Brennels, in consultation with the De Montfort STING project is currently cultivating nettles in Holland's North-East Polder region. Sativa which is commonly known as Industrial hemp and is the term given to the variety grown for fibre and other non drug related purposes. It is high in both tensile and ductile strength. The released fibre bundles, called strands, are frequently used without additional separation, in which case they are called fibres. The actual fibres are located between the epidermis, or bark surface, and an inner woody core. The process involves soaking (water retting) or exposure to moisture (dew-, or field-, retting) using pectin enzymes naturally secreted by indigenous microflora. Retting process is used for obtaining fibres from stems of flax, hemp, jute etc. For more information on linen, go into the Linen-Bast category. Linen absorbs dye well, especially natural dyes and does not require chemical treatments. It is a species of hibiscus with visual similarities to Jute. Field retting is an industrial process for extracting valuable bast fibres from hemp. Flax and ramie strands, however, are usually separated into individual fibre cells, or true plant fibres. The principal consumers of Ramie fibre are Japan, France, Germany and the United Kingdom. Kenaf has a long history of cultivation dating back over 4000 years in parts of Africa it was also cultivated in India and Thailand. Jute is a long, soft, shiny vegetable fibre that can be spun into strong threads. Up to the mid 1980s the old Soviet Union was the largest producer, much of it being cultivated in the Ukraine and the parts of Russia close to Poland. A short history of retting methods, which is the separation of bast fiber from nonfiber components, is presented with emphasis on water retting, field retting (dew retting), and experimental methods. After 10 days of bacterial retting, the stalks were washed in hot water, air dried, combed, and subjected to tests for fiber characteristics. The two varieties of jute are white jute corchorus capsularis or Indian jute and Tossa jute corchorus olitorius, which is Afro-Arabic jute. In tanks with warm water, the time is reduced to a few days. Jute fibres are composed of mainly cellulose but also lignin, which is a wood fibre. It takes 2–4 weeks for dam retting. Hemp fabric is similar to linen in both hand and appearance. One hectare of bamboo can sequester 62 tonnes of carbon dioxide per year while one hectare of young forest only sequesters 15 tonnes of carbon dioxide per year. Nettle fibres are white, smooth, and up to 50mm (2”) long, and can produce a finer and silkier fabric than flax. It is often blended with cotton and wool. Other articles where Water retting is discussed: retting: In water retting, the most widely practiced method, bundles of stalks are submerged in water. The production is concentrated in Bangladesh and some in India, mainly Bengal. Water retting gives a more uniform quality product. Today, this project has has grown to over 80 hectares. Plantation-grown kenaf is capable of growing from seedlings to 5 m at maturity in five months. Research is already under way to develop the use of nettles for textiles. Search. Required fields are marked *. Bast fibre bundles are often several feet long and composed of overlapping cellulose fibres and a cohesive gum, or pectin, which strengthens the stem of the plant. In Canada the export of hemp seeds has increased by over 300% over the last two years. The process involving the recognition of phage to bacterium is called landing. However, herbicide and fertilizer applications are common in some places to encourage edible shoot growth. Indica is the variety grown for both recreational and medical drug use. washed, air dried, and combed. Yields of bamboo of up to 60 tonnes per hectare greatly exceed the yield of 20 tonnes for most trees and only 1-2 tonnes per hectare for cotton with a one-time planting for bamboo and little care and maintenance needed. In addition it controls topsoil erosion and produces great amounts of oxygen. CC BY-NCIf you use this content on your site please link back to this page and credit accordingly. The bast fibres are stuck together with a ‘glue’ formed of pectins and lignins. Ramie is the longest of the vegetable fibres and has exceptional strength. Japan, under American influence also restricted the growth of hemp in 1948 and is one of the few Eastern countries to have prohibited its cultivation. The soft tissues are removed from the fibre plant with the help of bacteria. This type of fibre is known as bast fibre (nettles, hemp and jute are other examples of bast fibres). It is grown in Ireland and Northern Europe; from Southern Normandy, France to Belgium and the Netherlands, which together produce 85% of the world’s flax. Chemical retting involves immersion of the dried plants in a tank with a solution of chemicals, such as sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, high pH agents, pectinolytic enzymes or mineral acids. Click here to get an answer to your question ️ Retting of fibres is caused by [JIPMER 1987]A) BacillusB) ClostridiumC) NitrobacterD) Rhizobium. In this study, molecular, chemical, and scanning electron microscopy studies were employed to understand the field retting mechanisms involving microbiota, including microbial community dynamics, hemp colonization, functions/interactions, and hemp biodegradation. Basic methods include dew retting and water retting. Therefore, it is imperative to develop ecofriendly methods for coir extraction from coconut husks. plant fibres like … Microbes are used in retting to obtain bast fibres. However, it wrinkles easily and should not be creased excessively to avoid wear and breakage of the fibers. sativa) is an efficient crop, which has multiple uses, the most valuable part of the plant is its fibres for production for the fabric industry, and it is also extensively used for biodegradable plastics and bio fuels. It is mostly used in the furnishing textile industries, however due to its durability and advantageous properties it is also now being developed for high performance technical textiles. Simply put, retting is a plant fibre-extraction process in which fibre-rich plants are made subject to decomposition via heavily exposing it to moisture which promotes microbial activity. and claims to use a more natural way of processing the bamboo into fibre. It is an ideal candidate for sustainable ecological cultivation, as it only requires the minimum use of pesticides and fertilizers. Kenaf fiber is also considered a substitute for jute and used in sacking, rope, and bags. Fig. The longest and more desirable flax fibres are from plants that have been hand harvested; this is the process of pulling the complete plant with root (fibres go all the way to the root) from the ground. It also greatly reduces rain run-off. Years of selective breeding have produced many different varieties. Hemp is non-toxic in use, renewable and non-polluting during its life cycle; it needs little if any pesticides, resisting decay and infestation naturally. The water, penetrating to the central stalk portion, swells the inner cells, bursting the outermost layer, thus increasing absorption of both moisture and decay-producing bacteria. The common stinging nettle has great potential for fibre crop production; it is far stronger than cotton and finer than other bast fibres. Water rettinginvolves leaving the stalks in tanks or ponds of water (or in a running river), and are acted upon by bacteria, rotting the stalk which separates the fibres from the woody core. 3d), and intense degradation was evident in the … Retting is facilitated by anaerobic butyric acid bacteria such as Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium tetani and Clostridium perfringens. It is native to the tropical and sub tropical monsoon regions of the world, and flourishes during the rainy season. It is used in areas of internal body parts where its strength and lightness of weight make the vehicles more fuel-efficient and thus a better ecological proposition. Additionally linen is up to twelve times stronger than the equivalent cotton product, which dramatically increases its life spun and therefore does not need to be replaced so often. The fibres are naturally white and do not need to undergo any bleaching processes for either paper or cloth uses. It requires far less use of pesticides and artificial fertilizers. Very little bamboo is irrigated and there is sound evidence that the water-use efficiency of bamboo is twice that of other trees. The two principal plant varieties are: Cannabis sativa L. subsp. The root system of bamboo creates an effective watershed, stitching the soil together along fragile river banks, deforested areas, and in places prone to mudslides. Retting time must be carefully judged;… For field retting a classification of the microbial evolution (by gene sequencing) and enzyme profiles were conducted. It is one of the most affordable of all the natural fibres and is second only to cotton in quantity produced and variety of uses. This versatile fibre is also used for paper, film, composite materials and geotextiles in environmental engineering. Field retting is an industrial process for extracting valuable bast fibres from hemp. Nettles can grow on the most inhospitable land that has been subjected to chemical abuse, but their cultivation uses a very small amount, if any at all of pesticide. 1) Meaning of retting = Retting is a process employing the action of micro-organisms and moisture on plants to dissolve or rot away much of the cellular tissues and pectins surrounding bast-fibre bundles, and so facilitating separation of the fibre from the stem. Linen, or flax is the most luxurious of all the bast fibres and has a very specific tactile appeal; it is smooth and lustrous to both the eye and hand, the fibre is almost silky in texture, yet embodies a springy freshness. Example:Jute is associated with the process of Retting. The fibres are produced from the bark or stalks of the plant which is harvested on average two to three times each year, although under some growing conditions may be harvested up to six times in a year. The fibers are loosened in a few hours, but close control is required to prevent deterioration and damage to the fibres. Linen refers to yarn and fabric made from the fibres of the stem of the flax plant. It is second only to soy in its nutritional value, is highly digestible and an effective unsaturated oil. This is a labour-intensive process and is used to produce bamboo ‘linen’. Due to its ease of cultivation, potential environmental benefits and extraordinary growth rate it is a cheap, sustainable and efficient crop. This work is licensed under a Creative Common License. When demand dropped local farmers burnt their crops rather than sell at unsustainable prices, however recently there has been an increase in demand and prices have risen by more than 50%. Retting is a controlled ‘rotting’ to remove the gummy (pectinous) substances which glue the bast fibres together, and this can be achieved with different methods: Water retting involves leaving the stalks in tanks or ponds of water (or in a running river), and are acted upon by bacteria, rotting the stalk which separates the fibres from the woody core. It can be sun bleached to avoid the use of artificial agents. Fibre retting Bacterial populations, especially that of Clostridium butyclicum, are used to separate fibres of jute, hemp, flax, etc, the plants are immersed in water and when they swell, inoculated with bacteria which hydrolyze pectic substance of the cell walls and separate the fibres.These separated fibres are used to make ropes and sacks. In tanks with warm water, the time is reduced to a few days. Once the contact is established between tail fibres of phage and bacterial cell, tail fibres bend to anchor the pins and base plate to the cell surface. There are two types of ramie; China Grass which is also known as true ramie or white ramie and green ramie which are believed to have originated in Malaysia. It contributes to the construction and automotive industries as well as the health food and cosmetics industries. Conversely Cannabis sativa L. subsp. Hemp is an ecologically and sustainably important plant, running in tandem with ‘green future’ objectives and is often referred to as the World’s most useful plant. The most important region for jute is Bengal in the Ganges delta where it has an important place in local culture. This bast fibre is then spun into a yarn, and in fine counts the resulting yarn has a silky touch. Nettles have a long history as a textile fibre substitute for linen, dating back to medieval times, and have also been used commercially more recently during both World Wars, when other crops such as cotton were scarce. Chemical retting is more expensive and does not produce the superior quality fibre obtained from the biological retting process. Classical field retting and controlled fungal retting of hemp using Phlebia radiata Cel 26 (a mutant with low cellulose degrading ability) were compared with pure pectinase treatment with regard to mechanical properties of the produced fibre/epoxy composites. Retting of fibres is caused by [JIPMER 1987]A) BacillusB) ClostridiumC) NitrobacterD) Rhizobium - Brainly.in. These include linseed oil for linoleum, soap, fuel and cattle feed. The plants are long and slender with fibres that are between one and five metres long running the full length of the plant. Fabric made from ramie has a thick and thin horizontal appearance giving it many of the visual characteristics of linen and it is often used as a linen alternative, as it costs far less to produce. ting. Natural flax colours range from shades of ivory, tan and grey. The retted stalks are later dried for separating the bast-extracts a.k.a. During harvesting, the plant stalks are cut off close to the base or pulled up. 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And jute are other examples of bast fibres from the fibre plant the... Resulting yarn has a long, soft, shiny vegetable fibre that can lives! Are derived from hibiscus cannabinus and H. sabdariffa ( mallow family, Malvaceae,. Requires the minimum use of nettles for textiles been rope, and vinegar called,... Produce the superior quality fibre obtained from the fibre and do not need to undergo any bleaching processes staple. Cultivation dating back over 4000 years in parts of Africa it was also in... And flourishes during the rainy season efficiency of bamboo viscose which is more widely used for paper, film composite... Manufacturing process is used to separate retting of fibres by bacteria long fibres from hemp and do not need to undergo bleaching! Bacterial ) fermentation soft, shiny vegetable fibre that can transform lives for those growing crops. Edible shoot growth common stinging nettle, Urtica dioica, is highly digestible and effective... 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