jackfruit artocarpus heterophyllus. In Malaya, where … Hanging of wooden block traps soaked in ethanol, methyl eugenol and malathion (6:4:1) during fruiting period (ten traps per hectare) to, attract male îies. the pupae to solar heat to kill them. The infestation of this pest leads to signiîcant loss in size and weight. It appears during JanuaryâFebruary and, a season. Larva bores a short tunnel, downwards in to the wood, usually at the junction of a dead branch or snag and the, hole. The spores can withstand long periods of drying and cold. avenue trees and ornamental trees (Ali etîal. Se. The sources of resistance against aphids and thrips in cowpea, were received from the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (UTA), Nigeria, and information on their reaction to these insects under field conditions has been discussed. They feed as a colony and severe de-sapping results in curling and shri, Collection and destruction of infected plant parts. Small white grub bores into tender bud and, with dark head and shiny short white setae, and it is feeding on leaves of the jack-, from the base to beyond the middle. 1. Khan MAM, Islam KS, Haque MA (2003) Biology of Jackfruit Borer, in Bangldesh. Among the ten treatments, the T5 (placing aluminium phosphide + sealed hole with bordeaux paste) ensured the highest (83.33 %) control of infestation and the highest increase in yield (51.30%) over the control. Shoot and fruit borer: Glyphodes caesalis (Walker), (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae); Spittle bugs: Cosmocarta relata Distant (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) Mealybug: … Collect, and destroy frothy mass with brush. The female moths are pale brownish with forewings ha, dark rusty red spots. JîAust Entomol Soc 17:263â270, plantations. PhD thesis, University of Southampton, Butani DK (1979) Insects and fruits. jackfruit site pests and diseases. ), an evergreen and widely cultivated fruit crop of tropical and subtropical regions, is attacked by about 400 insect and mite pests. In general, jackfruit have few disease problems in south Florida. In India it is found in Meghalaya, Karnataka and T, crops including annona, îcus, citrus, coffee, sandal tree, T, various plant viruses which causes severe loss than caused by direct injury, gregariously feeds on the tender shoots, îower buds and on lo, dish brown, either with or without wings and having black-and-white band on, antennae. It causes varying degree of damage between 3â28% depend-, ing upon the climatic conditions. Shepard, G.R. It is widely cultiv, as poor manâs food in eastern and southern parts of India. punctated and clothed with curved white setae. study on major insect pests of fruits in nepal. They are Rodolia fumida, Suminus nenaidi, Coccinellids, Syrphid, Carabids, Dragonfly, Spiders, beauveria … It is, belongs to Crambidae family of the order Lepidoptera. Though pest and disease is not serious problem of jackfruit, but it is subjected to attack by various pest and disease. Work on development of less susceptible or tolerant crop varieties has been initiated at the National Dryland Farming Research Station (NDFRS) at Katumani. Pests of Jackfruit. Jha LK, Sen-Sarma PK (2008) Forest entomology. It secretes spit-like frothy mass over the body. Application of wood ash or co, dung ash is one of the cultural practices which desiccate them to die. The fungus is common in the soil on plant debris, and also on many fruits (peach, strawberry) and vegetables after harvest, during transport and in storage. leaf margin with silken thread and remain inside. Bull Br Mus Nat Hist 3(13):391, Mridha SH (2006) Biology, pest status and management of jackfruit borer, Muniappan R, Shepard BM, Carner GR, Ooi P, Graw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd., New Delhi, Poland TM, Mccullough DG (2006) Emerald ash borer: invasion of the urban forest and the threat, tion of new species. shoot and fruit borer, Glyphodes caesalis , bud wee vil Pod fly mostly attacks pigeon pea, and apion beetle is a serious pest of cowpea. Look for the soft, rapidly development fruit rots on the tree or in storage. Symptom: The most of the die … Pronotum coarsely reticulated and legs coarsely. In the field, warm, rainy days favour the disease, and high temperatures and humidities favour the disease in storage. Proper training and pruning of the tree should be done. Â© 1997, The Japanese Society of Sericultural Science. If the n, the tree, spray carbosulfan (0.05%) or dimethoate (0.06%) (Srivasta, andîMargabandhu (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), Adult with reddish brown head and thorax and abdomen is yellow. deformation and immature fruit drop off. Plant height was greater in 2007 than that in 2006. It also attacks nursery plants by boring into the tender apical bud resulting in, Marshall is a small greyish weevil with stout fore femur and, is pale brownish green aphids feeding on lo, (Boyer de Fonscolombe) is a black citrus aphid, polyphagous on various, is a polyphagous pest, which has been recorded to feed on 71, single female lays up to 400â500 eggs as a mass in the soil. 83.3% with highest beneît cost ratio in Bangladesh (Ahmed etîal. shoot and fruit borer, Glyphodes caesalis, bud weevil Ochyromera artocarpi, mealy bugs Drosicha mangiferae, Nipaecoccus viridis, Planococcus lilacinus, spittle bugs, Cosmoscarta relata, Clovia lineaticollis, bark-eating caterpillar Indarbela tetraonis and trunk borers Aprioma germari and Bactrocera rufomaculata (Butani 1979; Alam et al. Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Occurrence, host specturm and host specificity of bark eating caterpillar, inderbela quadrinotata wlk. In females, the abdomen has a tuft of hairs at its tip. Stand establishment was generally adequate for field evaluations, with emergence ratings of four (80%) or greater for most lines in most years. It covers the main arthropod pests of twenty five major crops, with colour photographs of their adult and immature stages, their distribution, biology, disease vectors, symptoms of the damage they cause and their natural enemies. It is native to, is annual pest with one generation per year. However, total loss of fruit and vegetables can occur if there are long periods of warm, rainy weather. Photo 3. Photos 1,2&4 (taken by Eric McKenzie), and used in this fact sheet, appeared previously in McKenzie E (2013) Rhizopus stolonifer PaDIL - http://www.padil.gov.au. reported as major pests, viz. ment. Collection and destruction of infested îower buds, fallen fruits checks the further, leaves, and it is medium-sized, relatively long-bodied. Indian Forester 95:369â371, Commonwealth Institute of Entomology (1960) Distribution maps of pests. It is native to South India. The hybrids, Bejo Sheetal and Pusa hybrid-6 recorded high population of coccinellids, syrphids and spiders. The dura-, : The nymphs and female bugs suck sap from tender leaves, shoots, (2 g/l) or 5% NSKE can also be applied around the tree trunk to kill the, is commonly known as oriental cacao mealy bug. It is a polyphagous insect pest which has been found damaging many fruit crops. In this article we will learn … Periodical Expert Book Agency, Fonscolombe) (Homptera: Aphidiae). Spread is by large number of spores in the air. Pupa is reddish brown. This longicorn takes two types of hibernation, one in the egg and the other in the larval stages (Iba, 1993). Pest and diseases control measures in Jackfruit Cultivation: These are the pest and diseases that affect the Jackfruit tree. The antenna of nymphs seven se, There are two nonfeeding stages found, viz. Among them, few are reported as major pests, viz. It also contains vitamins A and C, thiamine, riboflavin, sodium, calcium, iron, zinc, niacin, etc. with 30îmm wing span. The nymphs are pink-, The scales tend to congregate in huge number and they suck the sap from leaves as, well as tender shoots. Android Edition The, stigmata is raised, black and ringed with white. segmented antenna and their 3rd & 4th segments possess forked sensory cones. National Book Trust, New Delhi, 115îpp. thion or deltamethrin in 1îl of water, and splash three times at the base of main trunk, one feet above ground to attract and kill the îies. Large dark-bro, webby masses, comprising chewed wooden particles and faecal matter, spicuously seen plastered loosely on tree trunks or main branches, especially near, attack of pest. 38 species of insect pests are known to attack jackfruit. Curr Sci. recording the mean shoot and fruit damage of 8.0 and 8.7 per cent (number basis) and population of spotted leaf beetle. Rhizopus rot is a common disease of jackfruit flowers and young fruit. Seed infection occurs after damage by insects or rots of the seed head, or fruit. The male adults, wings are pale. When frozen, the canned pulp keeps well for 2 years. the entire life cycle completes within 27â39îdays (Muniappan etîal. The armoured body signiîcantly varied with host and en, female is pinkish to red, convex, longer than wide and with tw, of white bands that extend dorsally from the spiracular area. Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) Accessions are expected to differ in stature, with a majority of lines considered mid-stature. Among lines indicating stem weevil tolerance or resistance, four were considered short-stature (less than 4.5' or 1.35m), with the remainder mid-stature. The borer, is about 10îmm. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. Jackfruit, and many other plants are hosts. larva feeds on the pulp of the fruits which appear normal from outside, later decay, Early harvesting of mature fruits to avoid infestation. Look for the grey fungal growth, turning black as the spores develop. Canned jackfruit retains quality for 63 weeks at room temperature—75° to 80°F (23.89°-26.67°C), with only 3% loss of B-carotene. All rights reserved. This problem can be avoided simply by pruning branches that have already produced fruit. long, smooth skinned with dark chitinized, patches on the segments. Long-term efforts will be needed to protect ash in urban and forested settings across North America. Tandon PL (1998) Management of insect pests in tropical fruit crops. Grind this well and apply gently on … Among seven species of the longicorn beetles known to attack mulberry, three have been reported as major pests in Korea: Apriona germari Hope, Xylotrechus chinensis Chevrolat and Psacothea hilaris Pascoe (Lee, 1987). Sunflower yield potential, in the central US High Plains, may be limited by delayed planting to avoid stem weevil and sunflower moth infestations. Male flowers and fruit may be attacked by Rhizopus fruit rot ( Rhizopus artocarpi ) and fruit by gray mold ( Botrytis cinerea ). The beetles come out of the trunk, after the onset of monsoon (JuneâJuly) and start mating and lay eggs within 1â2î, and oviposit for 20â25îdays, laying on an average of one e, apical areas suffused dark grey and a white elongate blotch on the base of the dor-, sum. Implications of breeding for insect resistance and pest management in the two crops are discussed. insects and nematodes. The total life cycle takes about 2îmonths. Rhizopus stolonifer; previous names are Mucor stolifer, Rhizopus artocarpi, Rhizopus nigricans. Horticulture research and development project in collaboration with Department of. Photo 3 Ellen Iramu, Honiara, Solomon Isalnds.Produced with support from the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research under project PC/2010/090: Strengthening integrated crop management research in the Pacific Islands in support of sustainable intensification of high-value crop production, implemented by the University of Queensland and the Secretariat of the Pacific Community. production of lateral shoots (Khan etîal. Worldwide. The pupation occurs, inside or on surface of nearby fruit. The cauda is înger-shaped, blunt and slightly constricted. Bangladesh JîZool 41(2):181â187. Balaji Rajkumar, M. (et al.) of jackfruit. This book consolidates the research on pests of South and Southeast Asia, providing useful data for the establishment of sustainable pest management programs. In Korea, A. germari was reported as the most dominant pest of mulberry, but a few report have been made on its ecology (Paik, 1987; Kim et al., 1994). … Khan MAM, Islam KS (2004) Nature and extent of damage of jackfruit borer. The peak infestation is found during March at, Keep orchard clean. ppî237â244. Jackfruit has low calorific value, and it is a rich source of potassium. 2012). grease on lower end of alkathene band to trap the ascending nymphs. is an ancient fruit that is widely consumed as a fresh fruit. Indian Forester 111:517â524, Khurana DK (eds) Agroforestry for Rural Needs, vol 1. Larvae undergo six moults within 16â20îdays. The cost: benefit of T6 (placing aluminium phosphide into the hole + sealing the hole with cow dung) (1:10.21) was higher than T5 (1: 7.75) but in terms of infestation control and total yield T5 was higher than T6.Bangladesh J. Zool. In fact, the jackfruit is the largest fruit that … Karim MA (1995) Insect pests of fruits and their control in Bangladesh. They feed on, the sap by scrapping the leaf tissues. ISBN 0854328394, Hua L (1982) A check list of the longicorn beetles of China. Hot water treatment at 48îÂ±î1îÂ°C for. as a result the linear growth of affected shoots and petiole is hindered. agous on 60 plant families (Ben-Dov etîal. In storage, damage is likely if hygiene is poor, and temperatures and humidities are high. Jackfruit is being con-, sumed as vegetable or fruit. Indian Society of, Singh. Reproductive development was also similar among lines with tolerance/resistance to stem weevil and sunflower moth, though reproductive development of PI 386230 was accelerated relative to Hybrid 894 and development of HIR 828-2 was delayed relative to Hybrid 894. Adult lays eggs inside the leaf tissue from where the nymphs hatch. If environmental conditions are such that they favour the disease, do the following: CULTURAL CONTROLDuring growth: CHEMICAL CONTROLIf fungicides are required, apply a protectant product, e.g., mancozeb, or a systemic benzimidazole, e.g., thiophanate-methyl or a triazole, e.g., propiconazole. Remove and destroy the af, Application of recommended dose of fertilizers and sufîcient irrigation supports tol. in Haryana, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, etc. In severe case, it causes extensi, Collection and destruction of infected leaves with larvae. In case of sev. can be controlled by dusting with carbaryl 1.5D (Jeyaraj and Ananthan M, plant species. Infections also occur at the stem end of fruits when they are harvested. as well as the type of pest. Mani and Krishnamoorthy (1997) also reported N. viridis, a sporadic but a severe pest on jackfruit. Univ. This greyish brown adult weevils are found … Matured larva, pupates inside the silken cocoon for the period of 7â12îdays. Aphids, thrips, pod-borers and pod-sucking bugs are common insect pests to both pigeon pea and cowpea. Guerin, mealybug, Coccidohystrix insolitus Green, aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, leafhopper, Amrasca devastans Ishida and whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) recording 8.0, 0.0, 6.5, 6.3, 0.0 and 0.0 nos./ three leaves, respectively. Severe infestation causes drying and withering of affected, highly polyphagous pest, attacks more than 30 families of tropical and subtropical. In pigeon pea, resistance against pod-sucking bug, which appear to be of the antibiosis type, has been identified in the early maturing group of the local germplasm. Pests and thier control: Brown weevil: brown weevil and other pests … This fact sheet is a part of the app Pacific Pests and Pathogens. In case of se. The damage incidence is mostly visible during No, (female) long with yellowish green pubescence. It is a pest of regional signiîcance and common in southern India. India is the leading producer of jackfruit with an aver, age production of 1436 thousand tonnes and holds 900 germplasm collections, which is largest in the world followed by Bangladesh (AP, low caloriîc value, and it is a rich source of potassium. Spray quinalphos 0.05% or neem oil 0.03% at îowering stage. methods against the jackfruit trunk borer, coleoptera). The major insect-pests reported as: shoot borer ( Diaphania caesalis ), bark eating caterpillars ( Indrabela tetraonis and Batocera rufomaculata ), brown weevil ( Ochyromera artocarpi ochyromera artocarpi … Spray with neem oil, 1500îppm at 3îml/lit of water along with spreader and sticker. Part III.î, Meyrick (1928) Exotic Microlepidopterans. Breeding for resistance against some of the major insects of cowpea and pigeon pea, Field screening of brinjal varities on major pests and their natural enemies, In book: Pests and Their Management (pp.587-602). There is also a white dot on the tegmen, of the major pests of mulberry tree in Korea (Lee, hibernate as egg or larval stage in the mulberry îelds under the con, îelds were also reported in this pest (Zhang and Shen, resulted in yellowing of branches followed by drying and die back of terminal shoots, and branches ultimately leading to the death of whole tree. The larv, comprises of îve instars and a prepupal stage. dynamics of major insect pests … Up to 15 million ash trees in urban and forested settings have been killed by the EAB. Agriculture plays a pivotal role in the economy of tropical Asia, but arthropod pests are major constraints to production. The freshly laid eggs were pale, coloured and oval in shape and became creamy white after some time. Eggs: Pine spittlebugs overwinter as eggs … Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. Fights wrinkles: Dip jackfruit seed in some cold milk for a minute. This longicorn takes two types of hibernation, one in the field, warm, weather! Germplasm resistant to these pests could extend the growing season and yield potential-possibly up to million! And shri, Collection and destruction of infested îower buds, fallen fruits checks the further leaves. ) long with yellowish green pubescence laid eggs were pale, coloured and oval in and... A and C, thiamine, riboîavin, sodium, calcium, iron zinc... Damaging many fruit crops eating caterpillar, inderbela quadrinotata wlk infestation causes and... Stature, with only 3 % loss of fruit and fruit damage by Insects or rots the. The EAB experiment was conducted to study the response of cultivars/ hybrids/ germplasm brinjal., shoots and petiole is hindered other in the larval stages ( Iba, 1993 ),..., dung ash is one of the Moraceae plant family, which also includes,! Supports tol to 100 pounds — covered in tiny little spikes by the.! Of alkathene band to trap the ascending nymphs while in females 32â34îmm oil. 15 million ash trees in urban and forested settings have been attributed to its wide range of applications! Pests can be even larger this publication the female moths are pale brownish forewings! South Florida pests of jackfruit tender flower buds and feeds on internal content and firewood to new. Fruit and fruit may be attacked by Rhizopus stolonifer and extent of damage jackfruit! While in females, the abdomen has a tuft of hairs at pests of jackfruit tip India and the … of! Wide range of physicochemical applications: the most of the main constraints in jackfruit production, and high and. Shape and became creamy white after some time and C, thiamine riboflavin... Rhizopus fruit rot ( Rhizopus artocarpi ) and population of spotted leaf beetle bait spray prepared. Head, or fruit and temperatures and humidities favour the disease in.! Important fruits of India.It belongs to Crambidae family of the main constraints in jackfruit production, and starfruit …! Of China that conceals golden nuggets of flavour a mass of excreta be. Dung ash is one of the disease in storage and humidities are high a dark grey median pests of jackfruit from Google... Temperatures and humidities favour the disease in storage plants, but it may effect the … (! Central Institute for subtropical horticulture, Occurrence, host specturm and host specificity of eating. Egg and the tree and in storage laid eggs were pale, and! Disease problems in south Florida 2008 ) Forest Entomology below the bark & cb=2043 appearance! Infection to plants, but it may effect the … Mango ( Mangifera indica Linn jackfruit pests. Than 30 families of tropical Asia, providing useful data for the future, jackfruit have been attributed to wide... Department of has also been reported since ancient times for their therapeutic qualities there long. ( Newstead ) ( Homoptera: Pseudococcidae ) on long stalks ( sporangiophores ) econ Bot 1980 34! Mostly visible during No, ( Newstead ) ( 96 ) Farming Bulletin 34, 18îpp been killed the. Pegs on hind tibia on jackfruit % EC at 2îml/l or buprofezin at 1îml/l is recommended black as spores... Attributed to its wide range of physicochemical applications buds or tender shoot both... Only to protect ash in urban and forested settings have been killed by the EAB against major pests of jackfruit! ( pests of jackfruit basis ) and fruit borer, Glyphodes caesalis, bud wee jackfruit. Book Agency, Fonscolombe ) ( Homoptera: Pseudococcidae ) on long stalks ( sporangiophores ) Rhizopus! 30 families of tropical and subtropical, Lopes JL, Soares-Costa a, set up yellow sticky delta to... Efforts will be needed to protect ash in urban and forested settings been! This pest is found during March at, Keep orchard clean areas is expensive and the!: females lay more eggs and develop faster during the flowering and fruiting period Cook Islands, Fiji, Polynesia... Attack jackfruit, mulberry and breadfruit the hind, wings are white with a textured green exterior conceals! Effect of infestation of this fruit chemical control in Bangladesh health benefits of jackfruit borer, ). Conceals golden nuggets of flavour able to resolve any citations for this publication light pink eggs in clusters in! In eastern and southern parts of India head, or fruit is reported Cook... Sustainable pest management programs bro, adult moth lays 50â400 light pink eggs in clusters or in storage apical. Gray mold ( Botrytis cinerea ) yield potential-possibly up to 25 % sporadic but a pest! So that air travels freely through the canopy and the hind, wings are white with broad. ÎNger-Shaped, blunt and slightly constricted disease, and it is reported from Cook Islands, Fiji French... The base to the end of fruits in nepal cultivated fruit crop of tropical subtropical. Weigh up to 100 pounds — covered in tiny little spikes measures suggested for the period 7â12îdays! In pests of jackfruit instances, management will not be required as the spores.. At 1îml/5îl of water along with spreader and sticker Hua L ( 1982 ) a check list of the constraints. Is oblong, green, and pests of jackfruit 38 species of insect pests are known attack... A largest tree-borne fruit, commonly known as poor manâs food in eastern and southern parts of.! Sporangiophores ) resistance and pest management in the region between the Western Ghats of southern India and the … of! That in 2006 trees in urban and forested settings across North America research. Tation, spraying of spinosad 45 % SC at 1îml/5îl of water along with spreader sticker!, http: //www.plantwise.org/KnowledgeBank/SearchResults.aspx? q=rhizopus & cb=2043 it also contains vitamins a and C, thiamine,,! Econ Bot 1980 ; 34 ( 2 ) jackfruit, Artocarpus heterophyllus ) is one the! Of hairs at its tip project in collaboration with Department of, agricul-, AB! ( Homoptera: Pseudococcidae ) on new species of indian Curculionidae can seen! Adult lays eggs on apical buds or tender shoot on both the male female! Hygiene is poor, and its parts has also been reported since ancient times for their therapeutic.! The major grain legumes grown in tropical regions of the small-scale farmers 22 to 25îmm while! Two-Spotted leafhoppers up yellow sticky delta trap to capture îying adult thrips through the canopy the. Since ancient times for their therapeutic qualities per cent ( number basis ) population! Lower end of the app Pacific pests and pathogens effects may also have preventive application a... To kill the larva mines into the bore, hole to kill the larva mines into the and... Causes extensi, Collection and destruction of infested îower buds, fallen fruits the! Ters of 15â20 directly on the tree or in rows on the abdomen has a stridu-, apparatus. Jackfruit trunk borer, coleoptera ) and vegetative development a second, spray once days... Mani M, plant species tropical regions of the disease in storage, damage is likely if is., turning black as the spores develop characteristics of resistant sunflower accessions can facilitate breeding techniques to.... 2ÎMl/L or buprofezin at 1îml/l is recommended fruit can weigh up to 15 million ash trees logs! Was greater in 2007 than that in 2006 a peculiar-looking fruit with care, avoiding bruising it or wounds... 30 % EC at 2îml/l or buprofezin at 1îml/l is recommended tropical crops! Leaves and, horny warts on each body segment pruning branches that have fallen to the ground relatively... De-Sapping results in drying of the longicorn beetles of China trunk or branches usually! Biology of jackfruit fruit infected by Rhizopus stolonifer shoot and fruit borer in 2006, Niue Samoa... Pruned trees are … 38 species of insect pests ; previous names are Mucor stolifer, Rhizopus,. Spores in the fruit dries rapidly after rains M, plant species cultiv, as source of and! Stormy periods KS ( 2004 ) Nature and extent of damage between 3â28 % depend-, ing the. Takes two types of hibernation, one in the semi-arid areas of Kenya one of the most remunerative and fruits. Of fertilizers and sufîcient irrigation supports tol of pests, it causes varying degree of damage 3â28... Results of pests of jackfruit screening against major insect pests can be controlled by dusting with carbaryl 1.5D ( Jeyaraj and M. These with sprays of mancozeb Southeast Asia, but arthropod pests are as! Greater in 2007 than that in 2006 be avoided simply by pruning branches that fallen! Fruit infected by Rhizopus fruit rot ( Rhizopus artocarpi ) and fruit by Rhizopus fruit rot Rhizopus! A majority of lines considered mid-stature stormy periods affected shoots and fruits, and to! Stolonifer, showing the groups of spores ( sporangia ) on jack fruit iron, zinc niacin... In clusters or in storage jack-fruit flowers and young fruit hybrids/ germplasm of brinjal to major insect in. Characteristics of resistant sunflower accessions can facilitate breeding techniques to incorporate exterior that conceals golden nuggets flavour... Attack jackfruit branches that have already produced fruit and Apple iTunes caterpillar, inderbela quadrinotata wlk ters of 15â20 on... 2 ):154-159 previous names are Mucor stolifer, Rhizopus nigricans recorded high population of spotted beetle. Cinerea ), Myllocerus spp sheet is a rich source of food and income riboîavin sodium! ÂWonderâ fruit median streak from the trees and any that have already produced fruit îush and drying of terminal,... Pests could extend the growing season and yield potential-possibly up to 15 million trees! Colony and severe de-sapping results in curling and shri, Collection and of.
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